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Full text of "With hammer and tongs : malleable metals in diverse designs : an exhibition at the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration, Cooper Square and seventh street, February 4th through March 22nd, 1941"

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6402 
N5C778 
1941 
CHMREF 



WITH HAMMER 
AND TONGS < 

MALLEABLE METALS IN 
DIVERSE DESIGNS 




AN EXHIBITION AT THE COOPER UNION 
MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 
COOPER SQUARE AND SEVENTH STREET 
FEBRUARY 4™ THROUGH MARCH ll^P 
I94I 



WITH HAMMER AND TONGS 

An Introduction by Saul Yalkert 
Division of Industrial Design, Cooper Union Art School 

THE exhibition, With Hammer and Tongs, calls attention to a selection 
of objects of malleable metal drawn principally from the Museum's 
permanent collection. The transference of these objects from their ac- 
customed settings to the special exhibition area gives them a new emphasis. 
This is significant both for the outside visitor and the student of the Cooper 
Union Art School. The visitor benefits by the exhibition's interpretive func- 
tion. The student, a native member of the Museum's public for whom the per- 
manent collection is a constant reference source, gains additional instruction 
from the changing exhibitions, and becomes more pointedly aware of the simi- 
larity of purpose shared by the Art School and the Museum. His mind is 
clarified by these restatements of his problems outside the boundaries of his 
classroom. 

Industrial design teaching is formulated here to cover, by analogy, the 
existent practices in the field and factory today. It embraces machine fabri- 
cation, in both limited production and mass production, of many objects from 
accessories to heavy industry. These products, to achieve organic and esthetic 
unity, and to incorporate beauty as well as usabihty, must be designed to ex- 
press the tool and to meet the requirements of the material, the price, and the 
psychological appeal. Out of the materials laboratory comes an appetite for 
exploration, a feehng for the inherent aspects — tactile, structural, and con- 
structural — of material. A non-rigid, experimental method opens up fresh 
frontiers of work, and a series of tactile studies for the sharpening of visual 
sensory perceptions concurs with instruction in hand and power tools. The 
precise manner of toohng a metal, for example, its susceptibility to various 
types of tooUng, are experimented with, and the immediate results and evi- 
dences are recorded. A step by step analysis develops an objective or critical 
attitude and shows context and approach to be inseparable in industrial design. 



^ I The modern designer chooses materials for their esthetic and technical 
IflKtrTcharacteristics. His choice of one of many equally suitable materials is governed 
by inose of its physical traits which afford the widest exploitation for the best 
esthetic result. Dominant attributes of the selected material and its unique fit- 
ness for the projected design are stressed : for example, the intrinsic quahty 
and the grain in wood, the hardness and workabihty of metal, the fictile nature 
of plastics, the enduring temper of stone, the transparency of glass. Materials 
are combined for color, contrast, and the elimination of sensory fatigues. The 
technical factors determining choice are the fitness, facture, and responsive- 
ness of the material. 

The ready yielding of metal to precise surface articulation depends upon the 
tool used and the degree of malleabihty. Repousse, either intagho or relief, is 
achieved by hammering or pressing. Spinning is the exerting of pressure upon 
metals against revolving forms called chucks. More complex machine methods 
of forming are die pressing, rolling, and extruding. Metal is one of the few 
materials perfectly adapted to either manual or machine production, since 
its malleability is no longer a static quality. Through the wizardry of modern 
metallurgy, malleability can be precisely determined, and any given degree 
produced, the hardness or softness established and maintained at whatever 
point it is required. The manual craftsman generally was governed by maUe- 
abihty, and his only method of altering it was by pressure, such as that of 
beating or hammering, or in the case of iron, by tempering. The modern 
craftsman can not only govern this important quality by changing the carbon 
content, by heat treatment, or by the introduction of alloys, but can choose 
among new metals and alloys which were not available to the older craftsman. 

The present exhibition should serve to remind both visiting public and stu- 
dent that it is material, the beauty and latent strength of substance in all its 
kinds, which has challenged man's creative efforts. And however simple or 
complex man's environment, the basic reason for the transfer of substance 
into created form is use. Into this great domain is fitted whatever is in his 
museums, his home, his work. He learns by knowing what has been made, he 
makes with his knowledge of what is his to use. 




SELECTED REFERENCES 

In the Museum Library relating to the 
Design and Technique of Hand-Wrought Metal 



GENERAL 

Allemagne, Henry Ren£ D'. Les accessoires 
du costume et du mobilier depuis le treizi^me 
jusqu'au milieu du dixneuvi^me sifecle. Paris, 
Schemit, 1928. 3 v. front., cccxciii pi., fac- 
sims. F. 

Many illustrations of objects in malleable 
metal. 

American Numismatic Society, New York. 
Numismatic notes and monographs, no. 1-91. 
New York, American numismatic society, 
1920-date. illus. 12mo. 

Emilio, Luis Fenollosa. The Emilio collection 
of military buttons ... in the museum of the 
Essexinstitute,Salem,Mass. Salem, Mass., The 
Essex institute, 1911. xx, 264 p. 10 pi. 8vo. 

The Encyclopaedia britannica. 14th ed. A new 
survey of universal knowledge. London, New 
York, Encyclopaedia britannica [cl932] 24 v. 
illus., plates (part col.) ports., maps (part 
double) facsims., diagrs. 4to. 

See particularly : Anns and armour. Chasing, 
Die sinking. Embossing, Filigree, Forging, Iron 
in art. Jewellery, Mint, Numismatics — Tech- 
nique and art. Pewter, Pressed metal. Repousse, 
Silversmiths'' and goldsmiths' work. 

Fabriczy, Cornelius von. Italian medals. Lon- 
don, Duckworth, 1904. vii, 223 p. front., xl 
pi. 4to. 

Medals and medallists of the quattro- and 
cinquecento. 

Fallou, Louis. Le bouton uniforme fran?ais 
(de I'ancien-r^gime a fin juillet 1914). Co- 
lombes (Seine) "La Giberne," 1915. 327 p. 
illus., 10 col. pi. (incl. front.) F. 

Havard, Henry. Dictionnaire de I'ameuble- 
ment et de la d&oration depuis le xiiie si^cle 
jusqu'a nos jours. Paris, Quantin [1894] 4 v. 
illus., plates (part col.) F. 

See particularly : Argent, Argenterie, Dinan- 
derie, Fer, Or, Orfevre, Orfevrerie, Repoussi, 
Serrure, Serrurerie. 

Hayward, Arthur H. Colonial lighting. 
Boston, B. J. Brimmer [1923] xxv, 159 p. 
front., illus., plates. Svo. 

Many illustrations of metal lamps and 
lighting devices. 

HoRTH, A. C. Repouss6 metalwork ; a scheme 
of sheet metalwork for schools and amateurs. 
London, Methuen [1905] xii, 103 p. incl. 
illus., plates, diagrs. 8 pi. (incl. front.) 12mo. 
(Text-books of technology) 

Recueil de planches de rencyclop^die, par 
ordre de matiferes. Paris, Panckoucke [etc., 
etc.] 1783-85. 4 v. of plates. F. 



This and the following contain numerous 
plates describing techniques in working 
metals. 

Recueil de planches sur les sciences, les arts 
Ub^raux, et les arts mechaniques, avec leur 
explication. Paris, Briasson, 1742-52. 11 v. of 
plates. F. 

Stone, George Cameron. A glossary of the 
construction, decoration and use of arms and 
armor in all countries and in all times, to- 
gether with some closely related subjects. 
Portland, Me., The Southworth press, 1934. 
694 p. front., illus. F. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. De- 
partment OF Engraving, Illustration and 
Design. Old English pattern books of the 
metal trades, a descriptive catalogue of the 
collection in the museum. London, H. M. 
Stationery off., 1913. 38 p. xxiv pi. (facsims.) 
incl. front. Svo. 

Viollet-le-Duc, Eugene EMMA>njEL. Diction- 
naire raisonn6 du mobilier fran?aisde I'^poque 
Carlovingienne a la Renaissance. Paris, Morel, 
1874-75. 6 v. illus., plates (part col.) Svo. 

See Le serrurier, v.l, p. 389-94; Orfhrerie, 
v. 2, p. 169-239. 

GOLD AND SILVER 

Artinano y Galdocano, Pedro. Catdlogo de 
la exposicidn de orfebreria civil espanola. 
Madrid, Mateu, 1925. 163 p. 42 pi. F. 

Bapst, Germain. £tudes sur I'orffevrerie fran- 
gaise au xviiie siecle ; les Germain, orfdvres - 
sculpteurs du roy. Paris, J. Rouam, 1887. 
xxxi, 254 p. front, illus., 5 pi. Svo. 

— Le musee r6trospectif du metal a I'exposition 
de rUnion centrale des beaux-arts, 1880. 
Paris, A Quantin, 1881. iv, 104 p. 10 pi. (1 
double) 4to. 

Bedinger, Margery. Navajo Indian silverwork. 
Denver, J. Vanmale [cl936] 43 p. v pi. (incl. 
front.) 4to. (Old West series, no. 8) 

One of the few studies on the silverwork of 
the American Indian. 

Bigelow, Francis Hill. Historic silver of the 
colonies and its makers. New York, Mac- 
millan, 1917. xxiv, 476 p. front., illus. Svo. 

Bouilhet, Henri. L'orffevrerie frangaise au 
xviue et xixe siecles. Paris, H. Laurens, 1908- 
12. 3 V. illus., plates, ports., facsims. 4to. 

Library has v. 1 : L'orfevrerie frangaise au 
xvnie sidcle (1700-1789). 

Burlington Fine Arts Club, London. Ex- 
hibition of a collection of silversmiths' work 



of European origin. London, Burlington fine 
arts club, 1901. Ivii, 185 p. 120 pi. F. 

Brief discussion of technique in introduc- 
tion. 

Carr^, Louis. A guide to old French plate. 
With a foreword by E. Alfred Jones. New 
York, C. Scribner's sons, 1931. xxvi, 270 p. 
illus., plates. 12mo. 

— Les poingons de I'orffevrerie fran?aise du qua- 
torzifemesitelejusqu'audSbutdudix-neuvidme 
sitele. Paris, L. Carre, 1928. xxiii, 355 p. illus., 
XIV pi. (incl. front., fold, map, fold, tab.) F. 

Dawson, Nelson. Goldsmiths' and silver- 
smiths' work. London, Methuen [1907] xx, 
266 p. front., illus., 50 pi. 4to. (The connois- 
seur's library) 

Gardner, John Starkie, ed. Old silverwork, 
chiefly English, from the xvth to the xviiith 
centuries ; a catalogue of the unique loan col- 
lection exhibited in 1902 at St. James's court, 
London. London, B. T. Batsford ; New York, 
S. Buckley, 1903. xiv, 198 p. 121 pi. F. 

Germain, Pierre. Elements d'orfevrerie divis6s 
en deux parties de cinquante feuilles chacune. 
Paris, L'auteur, 1748. 5 1. 100 pi. 8vo. 

Jean Jacques Pasquier, engraver; plates 
70-72, 78, 81-82, 86 drawn by Jacques 
Roettiers iii. 

Havard, Henry. Histoire de I'orf^vrerie fran- 
?aise. Paris, May & Motteroz, 1896. 2 v. 
illus., XL pi. (part col.) F. 
Prehistoric times through the 19th century. 

— L'orfdvrerie. Paris, C. Delagrave [1895] viii, 
170 p. front., illus. 8vo. (Les arts de I'ameuble- 
ment) 

Development of technique and design 
through the 19th century. 

Howard, Montague. Old London silver, its 
history and its marks. New York, C. Scrib- 
ner's sons ; London, B. T. Batsford, 1903. xvi, 
405 p. incl. illus., plates, ports, col. front., 5 
col. pi. 4to. 

Jones, E. Alfred. Illustrated catalogue of the 
collection of old plate of J. Pierpont Morgan, 
esquire. Priv. ptd. London, Bemrose & sons, 
1908. liv, 108 p. xcviu pi. F. 

One hundred ten pieces of English plate 
and forty-nine foreign, chiefly German. De- 
scriptions of object illustrated include tech- 
nique employed. 

— The old silver of American churches. Letch- 
worth, Eng., Arden press, priv. ptd. for the 
National society of colonial dames of Amer- 
ica, 1913. Ixxxvii, 566 p. illus., CXLV pi. F. 

Over two thousand pieces of silver de- 
scribed and more than a thousand illustrated. 

— Old English gold plate. London, Bemrose & 
sons, 1907. xxiii p., 35 numb. 1. xxxvii pi. F. 

Masson. Nouveaux desseins pour graver sur 
I'orfeverie, inventus et graves par le sieur 
Masson. Paris, I. Mariette [n.d.] 6 pi. F. 



Matthews, Washington. Navajo silversmiths. 

(In U. S. Bureau of American ethnology. 2d 

Annual Report, 1880/81. Washington, Govt. 

print, off., 1883. p. 167-178. 5 pi. 4to) 

Detailed description of tools and methods 

of manufacture. 
Michel, Francois Xavier (dit Francisque). 

Recherches sur le commerce, la fabrication et 

I'usage des dtoff'es de sole, d'or et d'argent, 

et autres tissus precieux en Occident, princi- 

palement en France, pendant le moyen age. 

Paris, Crapelet, 1852-54. 2 v. 8vo. 
The most frequently cited authority in this 

field. No illustrations. 
NocQ, Henry. Orffevrerie civile frangaise du xvie 

au debut du xixe sifecle. Paris, A. L^vy [1930?] 

2 V. Lxxu pi. F. 
Olsen, Ivan Munk. S0lvsmeden Georg Jensen. 

K0benhavn, A. Jensen, 1937. 95 p. illus. 

(incl. port., facsim.) 4to. (Dansk kunst iv) 
Text in Danish and English. 

Phillips, Philip A. S. Paul de Lamerie, citizen 
and goldsmith of London ; a study of his life 
and work, a.d. 1688-1751. London, B. T. 
Batsford, 1935. xvi, 115 p. front., illus., plates, 
facsims. F. 

Numerous fine illustrations of the work of 
one of England's greatest artist-craftsmen. 

Pollen, John Hungerford. Gold and silver- 
smiths' work. London, Chapman and Hall 
[1879] viii, 160 p. illus. 8vo. (South Kensing- 
ton museum art handbooks) 

Rosenberg, Marc. Der goldschmiede^merk- 
zeichen; 3. erweit. und illus. aufl. Frankfurt 
am Main, Frankfurter- verlags-anstalt, 1922- 
28. 4 v. illus., 117 pi. on 59 1. 8vo. 

The most comprehensive survey of Eu- 
ropean makers' and hall-marks. 

Sangiorgi, Giorgio. Oro testile e saggio tec- 
nico-analitico. (In his Contributi alio studio 
dell'arte tessile. Milano, Roma, Bestetti & 
Tumminelli [192-] p. 23-[32] illus., col. pi. 
4to) 

Smith, H. Clifford. Jewellery. New York, 
G. P. Putnam's sons; London, Methuen, 
1908. xlvii, 409 p. illus., Liv pi. (3 col., incl. 
col. front.) 4to. (The connoisseur's library) 

SoLis, Virgil. Drinking-cups, vases, ewers, and 
ornaments designed for the use of gold and 
silversmiths. Twenty-one fac-similes of ex- 
tremely rare etchings by Virgil SoUs. London, 
J. Rimell, 1862. 21 pi. 4to. 

Wenham, Edward. Domestic silver of Great 
Britain and Ireland. New York, London 
[etc.] Oxford university press, 1931. xxiii, 186 
p. front., xcv pi. on 48 1. 4to. 

Wilson, H. Silverwork and jewelry ; a textbook 
for students and workers in metal. New York, 
D. Appleton, 1903. 346 p. incl. front., illus., 
xvi pi. 12mo. (The artistic crafts series of 
technical handbooks) 



IRON 

Allemagne, Henry Ren^ D'. Ferronerie an- 
cienne . . . du xiie a la fin du xviiie siMe. 
Paris, J. Schemit, 1924. 2 v. cccxv pi. F. 

Fine illustrations of the comprehensive col- 
lection of iron work of the Musee le Secq des 
Tournelles at Rouen. 

Armor and Arms Club, New York. Catalogue 
of a loan exhibition of Japanese sword guards, 
held at the Metropohtan museum of art. New 
Yorl< city, July 15 to October 15, 1921. [New 
York, R. A. Haag, printer, cl922] xxi p., 73 1. 
mounted photographs. 8vo. 

ARTifjANO y Galdocano, Pedro Miguel de. 
Exposicion de hierros antiguos espanoles. 
Catblogo. Madrid [Mateu] 1919. ciii, 178 p. 
illus. F. 

Babel, P. E. Premier livre de nouveaux desseins 
de serrureries. Invent^ et grave par Babel. 
Paris, Aveline [n.d.] 13 pi. F. 
Balconies, grilles, railings. 

BoNTHOMME, Gabriel. ler, 2e et 3e cahier de 
serrurerie, inv. et dess. par B ... en 1777. 
[Paris, n.d.] 18 pi. F. 

Brisville, Hugues. Diverses pieces de serruriers 
inventees par Hugues Brisville, maitres ser- 
rurier a Paris, et gravez par Jean Berain. 
Paris, L'auteur, 1662. 14 pi. 8vo. 
Jean Berain, yf/i, engraver. 

Bruning, Adolf. Die schmiedekunst seit dem 
ende der renaissance. Leipzig, H. Seeman 
[1902] 146 p. illus., pi. 4to. (Monographien 
des kunstgewerbes, in) 

Byne, Arthur. Rejeria of the Spanish renais- 
sance; a collection of photographs and meas- 
ured drawings, with descriptive text. New 
York, The Hispanic society of America, 1914. 
vii, 101 p. incl. col. front., xxvi (i.e. 27) pi. F. 
(Hispanic society publications, no. 87) 
Printed on one side of leaf only. 

— Spanish ironwork. [New York] The Hispanic 
society of America, 1915. xxxiii, 143 p. front., 
illus., plates. 8vo. (Hispanic society publica- 
tions, no. 89) 

Caillouet. ler — ive cahier de serrurerie. Paris, 
Chereau [n.d.] 24 pi. F. 

Augustin Foin and de Saint-Morien, en- 
gravers. 

Cortes, Antonio. Hierros forjados. Mexico, 
Museo nacional de arqueologia, historia y 
etnografia, 1935. 166 p. xxii, 80 pi. 4to. 

Cottingham, Lewis Nockalls. The smith and 
founder's director, containing a series of de- 
signs and patterns for ornamental iron and 
brass work. [2d ed. London, The author, 
1824] [4] p. 71 pi. F. 

Designs and patterns for gates, balconies, 
window-guards, railings, street lamps, etc. for 
designers and metal workers. 

CuviLLiis, Francois de, pere. Livre de ser- 
rurerie, nouvellement invents, par Francois 



de Cuvilli^s; grave par Charle Albert de 
Lespilliez. Paris [n.d.] 12 pi. F. 

Fay, J. B. Nouveau cahier de serrurerie de 
grilles et balcons a la moderne. Fay del. et 
sculp. Paris, Mondhare [n.d.] 6 pi. F. 

Ferrari, Giulio. II ferro nell' arte italiana; 
cento tavale riproduzioni in gran parte inedite 
di 169 soggetti del medio evo, del rinasci- 
mento, del periodo barocco e neoclassico, 
raccolte e ordinate con testo esplicativo. Mil- 
ano, U. Hoepli [1910] 221 p. incl. 100 pi. F. 
(Collezione artistica Hoepli) 

Fontaine, Jacques Valentin. Nouveau livre 
de serrureries contenant divers morceaux 
utiles a la decoration des eglises, &c. 9 pi. ; 
Nouveau livre d'etudes et principes de ser- 
rureries. 12 pi.; Livre de differens couron- 
nemens de serrurerie. 7 pi. Paris, F. Chereau 
[n.d.] F. 

Three suites bound together ; the last signed 
J. V. Fontaine, in. & sculp. 

Forty, Jean FRANgois. ler, iie et me livre. 
Oeuvres de serrurerie. J. F. Forty inv. et 
sculp. Paris [n.d.] 18 pi. F. 
Balconies, grilles, banisters. 

Gardner, John Starkie. English ironwork of 
the xviith & xvinth centuries ; an historical & 
analytical account of the development of ex- 
terior smithcraft. New York, W. Helburn ; 
London, B. T. Batsford [1911] xxxvi, 336 p. 
incl. front., illus. lxxx pi. 8vo. 

— Ironwork [from the earliest times to the end 
of the eighteenth century, excluding English 
work. London] Chapman and Hall, 1893-96. 
2 V. front, (v. 2) illus. 12mo. 

Gu^rard, Nicolas. [Various suites of serrurerie 
and arquebiiserie] Paris, N. Guerard [n.d.] 
51 pi. F. 

Havard, Henry. Le serrurerie. Paris, C. Dela- 
grave [189-] 174 p. front., illus. 8vo. (Les arts 
de I'ameublement) 

1 . ptie. : Fabrication ; 2. ptie. : Resume his- 
torique. 

Hover, Otto. Das eisenwerk : die kunstformen 
des schmiede-eisens vom mittelalter bis zum 
ausgang des 18. jahrhunderts. Berlin, E. Was- 
muth [1927] xlvi p. illus., 320 pi. on 160 1. F. 
(Wasmuth's werkkunst-biicherei, 3. bd.) 

Jacquard, Antoine. Differents portraitz pour 
les serruriers, nouvellement inventez. 1615. 6 
pi. 16mo. 

JoussE, Mathurin. La fidelle ouverture de Tart 
de serrurier ; ou Ton void les principaux pre- 
ceptes, desseings, et figures touchant les ex- 
periences et operations mannuelles du diet 
art, ensemble un petit traict6 de diverses 
trempes. La Fldche, G. Griveau, 1627. 152 p. 
illus. F. 

A notable work, containing twenty-two 
copper and thirty wood engravings. 

Labarta, Lltis. Hierros artisticos; colleccidn 
de ISminas representando los mas notables 
trabajos de forja, particularmente los debidos 



a los maestros Castellanos y Catalanes. Texto 
en espanol y francos. [Barcelona, S. Seix, 
1901] 2 V. 200 pi. 4to. 

Lamour, Jean. Recueil des ouvrages en ser- 
rurerie, que Stanislas le bien-faisant, roy de 
Pologne, due de Lorraine et de Bar, a fait 
poser sur la place royale de Nancy, a la gloire 
de Louis le bien-aime ; composd et execute par 
Jean Lamour son serrurier ordinaire avec un 
discours sur I'art de serrurerie et plusiers 
autres desseins de son invention. Paris, Fran- 
cois [n.d.] [9] p. 20 pi. F. 

Metman, Louts. Le m6tal. Paris, D. A. Lon- 
guet [1909] 2 V. plates. F. 
Library has v. 1 : Le fer. 

Murphy, Bailey Scott. English and Scottish 
wrought ironwork; a series of examples of 
English ironwork of the best periods, together 
with most of the examples now existing in 
Scotland, with descriptive text. London, B. T. 
Batsford, 1904. 14 p. 80 pi. F. 

Ornamental iron work, or designs in the pres- 
ent taste, for fan-lights, stair-case-railing, 
window-guard-irons, lamp-irons, palisades, 
and gates. With a scheme for adjusting de- 
signs with facility and accuracy to any slope. 
London, J. and J. Taylor [1815?] 21 pi. 4to. 

Schubert, Alfred. Alte kunstschmiedearbeiten 
aus dem xvl, xvn. und xvin. jahrhundert : 
thore, gitter, grab-und treppengelander, grab- 
kreuze, oberlichte, bekronungen, fuUungen, 
bander, schliisselschilder, thiirklopfer, gerathe 
etc. Nach den originalen aufgenommen. 2. 
aufl. Berlin, New York, B. Hessling [189-] 20 
pi. F. 

Shaw, Henry. A series of examples of orna- 
mental work, partly collected from various 
public and private buildings, and partly de- 
signed by H. Shaw. London, H. Shaw, 1825. 
25 pi. 4to. 
Railings, lamps, street lamps, etc. 

Small, Tunstall. English wrought ironwork 
of the late 17th and early 18th centuries; a 
portfolio of full-size details. New York, W. 
Helburn; London, The architectural press 
[1929]ivp. 20pLF. 

SoNN, Albert H. Early American wrought iron. 
New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1928. 3 v. 
fronts., illus. (incl. facsims.) 320 pi. F. 

A comprehensive collection describing door 
hardware, household appliances, and archi- 
tectural ironwork. 

Tijou, Jean. A new book of drawings invented 
by Jean Tijou. Containing severall sortes of 
iron work as gates, frontispeices, balconies, 
staircases, pannells, &c. London, The author, 
1693. 20 pi. F. 
Title in English and French. 
Pieter van der Banck, Michiel van der Gucht, 
Peter Paul Bouche, Blaise Gentot, engravers. 

Twopenny, William. English metal work, 
ninety-three drawings. With a preface by 



Laurence Binyon. New York, J. Love; Lon- 
don, A. Constable, 1906. 15 p. xciii pi. 4to. 

"Intended for craftsmen's use rather than 
for antiquarian study." p. 8. 
Vallee, S. Divers livres de serrurerie et d'orne- 
ment invente et gravez par S. Valine. Paris, 
S. Valine, [n.d.] 7 pi. F. 
Balconies, railings. 
— Livres de balcons. [n.p., n.d.] 12 pi. F. 

First two pieces signed "faits par G. 
Valine." 

OTHER METALS 

L'art du plombier et fontainier, par M. * * * 
[Paris, L. F. Delatour] 1773. 206 p. xxiv fold, 
pi. F. 

Very interesting illustrations on working in 
lead. 

Fuller, John. Art of coppersmithing ; a prac- 
tical treatise on working sheet copper into all 
forms. 4th ed., rev. New York, D. Williams, 
1911. 319 p. illus. (incl. plans) fold, plates, 
diagrs. 8vo. 

Geerlings, Gerald Kenneth. Metal crafts in 
architecture ; bronze, brass, cast iron, copper, 
lead, current developments, tin, lighting fix- 
tures, specifications. New York, C. Scribner's 
sons, 1929. vi, 202 p. front., illus., diags. 4to. 
Treats largely of metals in cast forms, but 
considers their adaptability to other tech- 
niques as well. 

Lethaby, William Richard. Leadwork, old 
and ornamental, and for the most part Eng- 
Ush. London and New York, Macmillan, 
1893. viii, 148 p. illus. 8vo. 

Mass^, Henri Jean Louis Joseph. Chats on old 
pewter. London, T. F. Unwin, 1911. 422 p. 
incl. front., illus., 51 pi. 8vo. 

— The pewter collector ; a guide to English pew- 
ter with some reference to foreign work. New 
York, Dodd, Mead, 1921. xiii, 15-314 p. xvi 
pi. (incl. front.) 8vo. (The collectors' series) 

Moore, N. Hudson. Old pewter, brass, copper, 
and Sheffield plate. New York, F. A. Stokes 
[cl905] xiii, 229 p. plates. 8vo. 

Good description of processes of working 
in these metals. 

Rose, Augustus Foster. Copper work ; a text 
book for teachers and students in the manual 
arts. 3d ed. Worcester, Mass. The Davis press, 
1909. 1 18 p. incl. front., illus. 8vo. 

Veitch, Henry Newton. Sheffield plate, its his- 
tory, manufacture and art; with makers' 
names and marks, also a note on foreign 
Sheffield plate. London, G. Bell and sons, 
1908. xiv, 359 p. incl. illus., Lxxv (i.e. 74) pi. 
front, (port.) 4to. 

Weaver, Lawrence. English leadwork, its art 
and history. London, B. T. Batsford, 1909. 
XV, 268 p. illus., plates. 4to. 

Wood, L. Ingleby. Scottish pewter-ware and 
pewterers. Edinburgh, G. A. Morton [etc., 
etc., 1907] xii, 223 p. 36 pi. (incl. front.) 4to. 



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